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Monday, November 24, 2008

Individual Cattle Identification: An Annotated Bibliography

Antonini, C.M. et al. “In Vivo Mechanical and In Vitro Electromagnetic Side-effects of a Ruminal Transponder in Cattle.” Journal of Animal Science 84. (2006): 3133-42. Print.

In this experiment, Italian animal scientists researched the effects of using runimal transponders for identification purposes in cattle. The emphasis of the research was placed on the effects of the transponder on “health and performance of cattle over a two year period, patterns of reticulorumenal motility, and in vitro growth and metabolism of bacterial populations in the rumen exposed to an electromagnetic field induced by prolonged transponder activation” (3134). There were no major influences on milk production, reproductive traits, body weight gain, or mortality. There were, however, slight affects on conception rates, chewing movements, and regurgitations. There were also effects on pH values in vitro and ruminal mucosa. This study is of great assistance for those with an interest and understanding of ruminant physiology and digestion.

Black, J.L., G.T. Davies, and J.F. Fleming. “Role of Computer Simulation in the Application of Knowledge to Animal Industries.” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 44.3. (1993): 541-55. Print.

This paper discusses the application and accuracy of computer models used in the livestock industry. The purpose of this research is to “outline the computer simulation procedure, to indicate the features of a system that assist its adoption by industry and to illustrate how one computer program can be used to improve” the management of an Australian piggery (542). A feed efficiency test for pigs on three different finisher diets was used to measure the accuracy and application of the computer models. The results show that computer models are successful for use in “accounting and for recording herd statistics” (553), but use of a full animal model would lead to greater accuracy. This research is moderately easy to understand for those with an interest in technical management of livestock operations.

Brown, Dennis E. RFID Implementation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

This book discusses the implementation of Radio Frequency Identification Devices, also known as RFID. Section 5.2.1.9 discusses the application of this technology to animal industries. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has implemented a program for organized identification procedures: National Animal Identification System (NAIS). This system includes identification programs for livestock species and “specifies two numbering systems: a Premises Identification Number (PIN) and an individual Animal Identification Number (AIN)” (160). The USDA has also implemented identification programs for companion animals. The section identifies obstacles of the programs including the cost of implementation. This is a good reference for those not familiar with animal terminology, wanting to learn more about RFID.

Caja, G. et al. “Development of a Ceramic Bolus for the Permanent Electronic Identification of Sheep, Goat and Cattle.” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 24. (1999): 45-63. Print.

This research investigates the use of a ceramic bolus for electronic identification for a number of ruminants (sheep, goat, and cattle). The goal of the study was “the evaluation of the retention rate in the animal body and the study of digestive and performance effects of the application of a new ceramic bolus in sheep, goats, and cattle, at different ages and under different exploitation conditions” (46). This is a follow up study to previous work completed by Caja et al. This research found that retention rates for the bolus were successful and the ceramic bolus had no negative effects on the test animals. This is a good resource for those familiar with ruminant physiology.

Elbakidze, Levan. “Economic Benefits of Animal Tracing in the Cattle Production Sector.” Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics 32.1. (2007): 169-80. Print.

This resource addresses the advantages and drawbacks of animal tracing systems as related to “animal disease management” (169). The purpose of this research is “to demonstrate the benefits of an animal tracking system to cattle producers under the possible outbreak of an infectious animal disease” (171). The application of the results relies on real-world factors such as contact rates and the effectiveness of the response. This study found that the use of an organized identification system would greatly reduce the economic losses for industry producers in the occurrence of a major animal disease outbreak. This is a good source for those interested in livestock identification applications and provides easy reading for those with little knowledge of the subject.

Klindtworth, M. et al. “Electronic Identification of Cattle with Injectable Transponders.” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 24. (1999): 65-79. Print.

This article searches current studies to identify the best form of electronic identification for use in cattle and the best location for application. The need for an easy application and long lasting identification are important to an applicable transponder. The research found the prime location for injection of a transponder to be at the scutulum cartilage, which is located on the cranial base of the ear. The research found that this area provides for ease of application, and longevity of the transponder. The article is a good resource for those interested in animal identification and provides easy reading for those with little knowledge of the subject.

Rickert, K.G. “Modeling Beef Cattle Production to Improve Quality.” Meat Processing: Improving Quality. Ed. Joseph Kerry, John Kerry, and David Ledward. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2002. 239-58. Print.

This article recognizes that fact that there is a need for an accurate computer model to assist in cattle operation management. It also acknowledges that any such model must include the many factors that affect cattle production; “interactions between the physical environment, financial environment, management, feed supply, and animal reproduction and growth” (239). The author identifies the element, challenges, and variations that will change the application of computer models to cattle production. There are many advances to be made with more information and technology available on the internet. This article is very useful for those that have an understanding of cattle production management and want to learn more on the technicality of cattle management.

Scanga, J.A. et al. “Development of Computational Models for the Purpose of Conducting Individual Livestock and Premises Traceback Investigations Utilizing National Animal Identification System-compliant Data.” Journal of Animal Science 85. (2007): 503-11. Print.

This article identifies the aspects of computer models for investigations of animal traceback. The target of this research was to recognize technology “capable of conducting accurate and rapid traceback and traceforward on extremely large datasets that contain NAIS-compliant data.” The focus of the study was to “narrow the forty-eight hour window for animal identification” that is pointed out in NAIS specifications (504). The results showed that with a compliant system it is possible to perform a traceback on selected animals and to identify comingling animals. Many specifications of the system need to be modified to include the variables that occur in a real-world application. This article is a useful for those with an understanding of the cattle industry and the process of animal identification.

Schuster, Edmund W., Stuart J. Allen, and David L. Brock. Global RFID: The Value of the EPCglobal Network for Supply Chain Management. New York: Springer, 2007. Print.

Chapter nine of this text focuses on animal tracking systems using RFID technology as a solution. The authors identify the need for an organized animal identification system that has the ability to traceback animal origins and comingling animals within a forty-eight hour period. The single U.S. case of “Mad Cow Disease”, also known as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) from December 2003 is used as an example of the need for such a system (122-3). The authors determine the use of RFID technology in a traceback system will greatly increase the efficacy of the traceback. This is a good source on the use of RFID technology and provides easy reading for those with little knowledge of the subject.

Tedeschi, L.O. et al. “Identifying Differences in Feed Efficiency Among Group-fed Cattle.” Journal of Animal Science 84. (2006): 767-76. Print.

The objective of this research was to “evaluate indicators of feed efficiency in young growing beef cattle” and “identify differences in feed efficiency” (768). The feed efficiency of cattle has applications to breeding and cattle growing programs. This research indentified the several factors that go into feed efficiency and concluded that the use of models that include “the primary variables that influence energy requirements” can be applied to selecting genetic differences in cattle feed efficiency. The article identifies the fact that improvements in the model can be made to include better measurements on weight, average daily gain, and maintenance requirements of cattle. This resource is directed toward individuals who have an understanding of ruminant nutrition.